Anti-leftist anti-Semitism is deeply rooted in both the US and Europe. US: Franklin D. Roosevelt was routinely characterized during the New Deal as being under the thumb of his Jewish aides, and perhaps even secretly Jewish himself ("Franklin D. Rosenfeld"). The notion that the African American civil rights movement was/is a Jewish conspiracy to undermine "traditional American values" goes back to the 1950s, and remains strong in present-day alt-right circles. Today's "mainstream" Republicans also obsess over various cultural bugbears who just happen to be Jewish -- from George Soros to Saul Alinsky, supposed to be the radical leftist Jew who programmed the brains of Bill and Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama. Europe: Tsarist Russia was obsessed with the notion of the Jewish revolutionary, and similar notions were entertained in 19th-century Germany (after 1848) and in France. In the Paris protests of 1968, there was anti-Semitic backlash against Jewish leadership in the protests. The ongoing vilification of George Soros by rightists in Eastern Europe today is a contemporary example. 19th-century European reactionaries "were certain democracy was pure folly and that the common people, whether they knew it or not, required hierarchy and authority to be happy. Jews, judging from their notable role in the Austrian and German revolutions of 1848 and their close identification with liberalism and socialism in the years that followed, seemed hell-bent on destroying the sacred bonds of the community."